Continuously Shuffling Machine, Abstract. (very long post!)
  • If you are interested in detailed drawings, assembly drawings. etc..,. I will post them in the future.
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    Device and method for continuously shuffling cards, 4 Deck Model

    Abstract
    The present invention provides an apparatus and method for moving playing cards from a first group of cards into a second group of cards, wherein the second group of cards is randomly arranged or shuffled. The apparatus comprises a card receiver for receiving the first group of cards, a single stack of card-receiving compartments generally adjacent to the card receiver, the stack generally vertically movable, an elevator for moving the stack, a card-moving mechanism between the card receiver and the stack for moving cards one at a time into a selected one of the compartments, another card moving mechanism for moving cards from one of the compartments to a second card receiver and a microprocessor that controls the card-moving mechanisms and the elevator.

    BACKGROUND

    1. Field
    The present invention relates to devices for handling cards, including cards known as "playing cards." In particular, it relates to an electromechanical machine for continuously shuffling playing cards, whereby a dealer has a substantially continuously readily available supply of shuffled cards for dealing.

    2. Related Art
    Wagering games based on the outcome of randomly generated or selected symbols are well known. Such games are widely played in gaming establishments and include card games wherein the symbols comprise familiar, common playing cards. Card games such as twenty-one or blackjack, poker and the like are excellent casino card games. Desirable attributes of casino card games are that they are exciting, that they can be learned and understood easily by players, and that they move or are played rapidly to their wager-resolving outcome.

    From the perspective of players, the time the dealer must spend in shuffling diminishes the excitement of the game. From the perspective of casinos, shuffling time reduces the number of wagers placed and resolved in a given amount of time, thereby reducing revenue. Casinos would like to maximize the amount of revenue generated by a game without changing games, particularly a popular game, and without increasing the minimum size of wagers. One approach to maximizing revenue is speeding play. It is widely know that playing time is diminished by shuffling and dealing. This approach has lead to the development of electromechanical or mechanical card shuffling devices. Such devices increase the speed of shuffling and dealing, thereby increasing playing time, adding to the excitement of a game by reducing the time the dealer or house has to spend in preparing to play the game.


    The size of the buffer supply of shuffled cards in the known continuous shufflers is up to 40 or more cards.

    Randomness is determined in part by the recurrance rate of a card previously played in the next consecutively dealt hand. The theoretical recurrance rate for known continuous shufflers is believed to be about zero percent. A completely random shuffle would yield a 13.5% recurrance rate using four decks of cards.

    Although the devices disclosed in the preceding patents, particularly the Breeding machines, provide improvements in card shuffling devices, none describes a device and method for providing a continuous supply of shuffled cards with the degree of randomness and reliability required by casinos. A device and method which could continuously shuffle and deliver cards with an improved recurrance rate would improve the acceptance of card shufflers and facilitate the casino play of card games.

    SUMMARY
    The present invention provides an electromechanical card handling apparatus and method for continuously shuffling cards. The apparatus and, thus, the card handling method or process, is controlled by a programmable microprocessor and may be monitored by a plurality of sensors and limit switches.

    While the card handling apparatus and method of the present invention is well suited for use in the gaming environment, particularly in casinos, the apparatus and method may find use in handling or sorting sheet material generally.

    In one embodiment, the present invention provides an apparatus for moving playing cards from a first group of unshuffled cards into a shuffled group of cards. The apparatus comprises a card receiver for receiving the first group of cards, a single stack of card-receiving compartments generally adjacent to the card receiver, the stack generally vertically movable, an elevator for raising and lowering the stack, a card-moving mechanism between the card receiver and the stack for moving cards, one at a time, from the card receiver to a selected compartment, and a microprocessor that controls the card-moving mechanism and the elevator so that the cards are moved into a number of randomly selected compartments. Sensors monitor and trigger operation of the apparatus, including the microprocessor, card moving mechanisms, and the elevator. The controlling microprocessor, including software, selects or identifies where cards will go as to the selected slot or compartment before card handling operations begin. For example, a card designated as card 1 may be directed to slot 5, a card designated as card 2 may be directed to slot 7, a card designated as card 3 may be directed to slot 3, etc.

    An advantage of the present invention is that it provides a programmable card handling machine with a display and appropriate inputs for controlling and adjusting the machine. Additionally, there may be an elevator speed adjustment and sensor to adjust and monitor the position of the elevator as cards wear or become bowed or warped. These features also provide for interchangeability of the apparatus, meaning the same apparatus can be used for many different games and in different locations thereby reducing the number of back up machines or units required at a casino. Since it is customary in the industry to provide free backup machines, a reduction in the number of backup machines needed presents a significant cost savings. The display may include a use rate and/or card count monitor and display for determining or monitoring the usage of the machine.

    Another advantage of the present invention is that it provides an electromechanical playing card handling apparatus for automatically and randomly generating a continuous supply of shuffled playing cards for dealing. Other advantages are a reduction of dealer shuffling time, and a reduction or elimination of problems such as card counting, possible dealer manipulation and card tracking, thereby increasing the integrity of a game and enhancing casino security.

    Yet another advantage of the card handling apparatus of the present invention is that it converts a single deck, multiple decks, any number of unshuffled cards or large or small groups of discarded or played cards into shuffled cards ready for use or reuse in playing a game. To accomplish this, the apparatus includes a number of stacked or vertically oriented card receiving compartments one above another into which cards are inserted, one at a time, so a random group of cards is formed in each compartment and until all the cards loaded into the apparatus are distributed to a compartment. Upon demand, either from the dealer or a card present sensor, or automatically, the apparatus delivers one or more groups of cards from the compartments into a dealing shoe for distribution to players by the dealer.

    The present invention may include jammed card detection and recovery features, and may include recovery procedures operated and controlled by the microprocessor.

    Another advantage is that the apparatus of the present invention provides for the initial top feeding or loading of an unshuffled or discarded group of cards thereby facilitating use by the dealer. The shuffled card receiving shoe portion is adapted to facilitate use by a dealer.

    An additional advantage of the card handling apparatus of the present invention is that it facilitates and speeds the play of casino wagering games, particularly those games wherein multiple decks of cards are used and popular, rapidly played games (such as twenty-one or blackjack), making the games more exciting for players.

    In use, the apparatus of the present invention is operated to process playing cards from an initial, unshuffled new or played group of cards into a group of shuffled or reshuffled cards available to a dealer for distribution to players. The first step of this process is the dealer placing an initial group of cards, comprising unshuffled or played cards, into the card receiver of the apparatus. The apparatus is started or starts automatically by sensing the presence of the cards and, under the control of the integral microprocessor, it transfers the initial group of cards, randomly, one at a time, into a plurality of compartments. Groups of cards in one or more compartments are delivered, upon the dealer's demand or automatically, by the apparatus from that compartment to a card receiving shoe for the dealer to distribute to a player.

    According to the present invention, the operation of the apparatus is continuous. That is, once the apparatus is turned on, any group of cards loaded into the card receiver will be entirely processed into one or more groups of random cards in the compartments. The software assigns an identity to each card and then directs each identified card to a randomly selected compartment by operating the elevator motor to position that randomly selected compartment to receive the card. The cards are unloaded in groups from the compartments, a compartment at a time, as the need for cards is sensed by the apparatus. Thus, instead of stopping play to shuffle or reshuffle cards, a dealer always has shuffled cards available for distribution to players.

    The apparatus of the present invention is compact, easy to set up and program and, once programmed, can be maintained effectively and efficiently by minimally trained personnel who cannot affect the randomness of the card delivery. This means that the machines are more reliable in the field. Service costs are reduced, as are assembly and set up costs.

    Other features and advantages of the present invention will become more fully apparent and understood with reference to the following specification and to the appended drawings and claims.

    BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

    FIG. 1 is a front perspective view depicting the apparatus of the present invention as it might be disposed ready for use in a casino on a gaming table.

    FIG. 2 is a perspective view, partially broken away, depicting the rear of the apparatus of the present invention.

    FIG. 3 is a front perspective view of the card handling apparatus of the present invention with portions of the exterior shroud removed.

    FIG. 4 is a side elevation view of the present invention with the shroud and other portions of the apparatus removed to show internal components.

    FIG. 5 is a side elevation view, largely representational, of the transport mechanism and rack assembly of the apparatus of the present invention.

    FIG. 5a is a side elevation view, drawn from area 5a in FIG. 5, showing more detail of the rack assembly, particularly the shelves forming the top and bottom of the compartments of the rack assembly.

    FIG. 6 is an exploded assembly view of the transport mechanism shown in FIG. 5.

    FIG. 7 is a top plan view, partially in section, of the transport mechanism.

    FIG. 8 is a top plan view of one embodiment of the pusher assembly of the present invention.

    FIG. 8a is a perspective view of another embodiment of the pusher assembly of the present invention.

    FIG. 9 is a front elevation view of the rack and elevator assembly.

    FIG. 10 is an exploded assembly view of one embodiment of a portion of the rack and elevator assembly.

    FIG. 11 depicts an alternative embodiment of the shelves or partitions for forming the stack of compartments of the present invention.

    FIG. 12 is a simplified side elevation view, largely representational, of the card handler of the present invention.

    FIG. 13 is a perspective view of a portion of the card handling apparatus of the present invention, namely, the second card receiver at the front of the apparatus, with a cover portion of the shroud removed.

    FIG. 14 is a schematic diagram of an electrical control system for one embodiment of the present invention.

    FIG. 15 is a schematic diagram of the electrical control system.

    FIG. 16 is a schematic diagram of an electrical control system with an optically-isolated bus.

    FIG. 17 is a detailed schematic diagram of a portion of FIG. 16.

    DETAILED DESCRIPTION
    This detailed description is intended to be read and understood in conjunction with appended Appendices A, B and C, which are incorporated herein by reference. Appendix A provides an identification key correlating the description and abbreviation of certain motors, switches and photoeyes or sensors with reference character identifications of the same components in the Figures, and gives the manufacturers, addresses and model designations of certain components (motors, limit switches and sensors). Appendix B outlines steps in a homing sequence, part of one embodiment of the sequence of operations.

    With regard to means for fastening, mounting, attaching or connecting the components of the present invention to form the apparatus as a whole, unless specifically described as otherwise, such means are intended to encompass conventional fasteners such as machine screws, rivets, nuts and bolts, toggles, pins and the like. Other fastening or attachment means appropriate for connecting components include adhesives, welding and soldering, the latter particularly with regard to the electrical system of the apparatus.

    All components of the electrical system and wiring harness of the present invention are conventional, commercially available components unless otherwise indicated, including electrical components and circuitry, wires, fuses, soldered connections, chips, boards and control system components.

    Generally, unless specifically otherwise disclosed or taught, the materials for making the various components of the present invention are selected from appropriate materials such as metal, metallic alloys, ceramics, plastics, fiberglass and the like.

    In the following description, the Appendices and the claims, any references to the terms right and left, top and bottom, upper and lower and horizontal and vertical are to be read and understood with their conventional meanings and with reference to viewing the apparatus generally from the front as shown in FIG. 1.

    Referring then to the Figures, particularly FIGS. 1, 3 and 4, the card handling apparatus 21 of the present invention includes a card receiver 26 for receiving a group of cards to be randomized or shuffled, a single stack of card-receiving compartments 28 (see FIGS. 4 and 9) generally adjacent to the card receiver 26, a card moving or transporting mechanism 30 (see FIGS. 3 and 4) between and linking the card receiver 26 and the compartments 28, and a processing unit, indicated generally at 54 in FIG. 3, that controls the apparatus 21. The apparatus 21 includes a second card mover 34 (see FIGS. 4, 8 and 8a) for emptying the compartments 28 into a second card receiver 36.

    Referring to FIGS. 1 and 2, the card handling apparatus 21 includes a removable, substantially continuous exterior housing shroud 40. The shroud 40 may be provided with appropriate vents 42 for cooling. The card receiver or initial loading region, indicated generally at 26 is at the top, rear of the apparatus 21, and the second card receiver 36 is at the front of the apparatus 21. Controls and/or display features 32 are generally at the rear or dealer-facing end of the machine 21. FIG. 2 provides a view of the rear of the apparatus 21 and more clearly shows the display and control inputs and outputs 32, including power input and communicatin port 46.

    FIG. 3 depicts the apparatus 21 with the shroud 40 removed, as it might be for servicing or programming, whereby internal components may be visualized. The apparatus includes a generally horizontal frame floor 50 for mounting and supporting operational components. A control (input and display) module 56 is cantilevered at the rear of the apparatus 21, and is operably connected to the operational portions of the apparatus 21 by suitable wiring or the like. The control module 56 may carry the microprocessor (not shown), or the microprocessor is preferably located on processing unit 54 on the frame 50 inside the shroud 40. The inputs and display portion 44 of the module 56 are fitted to corresponding openings in the shroud 40, with associated circuitry and programming inputs located securely with the shroud 40 when it is in place as shown in FIGS. 1 and 2.

    Card Receiver

    Referring to FIGS. 3 and 4, the card receiver or loading region 26 includes a card receiving well 60. The well 60 is defined by upright, generally parallel card guiding side walls 62 and a rear wall 64. It includes a floor surface 66 pitched or angled downwardly toward the front of the apparatus 21. Preferably, the floor surface is pitched from the horizontal at an angle ranging from approximately five to twenty degrees, with a pitch of seven degrees being preferred. A removable, generally rectangular weight or block 68 is freely and slidably received in the well 60 for free forward and rearward movement along the floor surface 66. Under the influence of gravity, the block 68 will tend to move toward the forward end of the well 60. The block 68 has an angled, card-contacting front face 70 for contacting the back (i.e., the bottom of the bottommost card) of a group of cards placed into the well, and urges cards (i.e., the top card of a group of cards) forward into contact with the card transporting mechanism 30. The card-contacting face 70 of the block 68 is at an angle complimentary to the floor surface 66 of the well 60, for example, an angle of between approximately 10 and 80 degrees, and preferably at an angle of 40 degrees. This angle and the weight of the block keep the cards urged forwardly against the transport mechanism 30. The selected angle of the floor 66 and the weight of the block 68 allow for the free floating rearward movement of the cards and the block 68 to compensate for the rearward force and movement generated as the top or forwardmost card contacts the transport mechanism 30 and begins to move. The well 60 includes a card present sensor 74 to sense the presence or absence of cards in the well 60. Preferably, the block 68 is mounted on a roller 69 for easing the movement of the block 68, and/or the floor 66 and the bottom of the block may be formed of or coated with friction reducing material. As shown in FIG. 6, the block 68 may have a thumb or finger receiving notch 71 to facilitate moving it.

    Card Receiving Compartments
    The assembly or stack of card receiving compartments 28 is depicted in FIGS. 4, 9 and 10, and may also be referred to as a rack assembly. Referring back to FIG. 3, the rack assembly 28 is housed in an elevator and rack assembly housing 78 generally adjacent to the well 60, but horizontally spaced therefrom. An elevator motor 80 is provided to position the rack assembly 28 vertically under control of a microprocessor, in one embodiment, generally part of the processing unit 54. The motor 80 is linked to the rack assembly 28 by a timing belt 82. Referring to FIG. 10, which depicts a portion of the rack assembly 28 and how it may be assembled, the rack assembly 28 includes a bottom plate 92, a left hand rack 94 carrying a plurality of half shelves 96, a right hand rack 98 including a plurality of half shelves 100 and a top plate 102. Together the right and left hand racks 94, 98 and their respective half shelves 96, 100 form the individual plate-like shelf pieces 104 for forming the top and bottom walls of the individual compartments 106. The rack assembly 28 is operably mounted to the apparatus 21 by a left side rack plate 106 and a linear guide 108. It is attached to the guide by a guide plate 110. The belt 82 links the motor 80 to a pulley 112 for driving the rack assembly 28 up and down. A hall effect switch assembly 114 is provided to sense the bottom position of the rack assembly 28.

    FIG. 9 depicts a rack assembly 28 having 19 individual compartments 106 for receiving cards. Generally speaking, a larger number of individual compartments is preferred over fewer compartments, with 17 to 19 compartments being most preferred, but it should be understood that the present invention is not limited to a rack assembly of seventeen to nineteen compartments. Preferably, the compartments 106 are all substantially the same size, i.e., the shelves 104 are substantially equally vertically spaced from each other. FIG. 7 shows, in part, a top plan view of one of the shelf members 104 and that each includes a pair of rear tabs 124 located at respective rear corners of the shelf member 104. The tabs 124 are for card guiding, and help make sure cards are moved from the transporting mechanism 30 into the rack assembly 28 without jamming by permitting the leading edge of the card to be guided downwardly into the compartment 106 before the card is released from the card moving mechanism 30. Generally, it is desirable to mount the shelves as close to the transporting mechanism 30 as possible.

    FIG. 11 depicts an alternative embodiment of plate-like shelf members 104 comprising a single-piece plate member 104'. An appropriate number of the single-piece plates, corresponding to the desired number of compartments 106 would be connected between the side walls of the rack assembly 28. The plate 104' depicted in FIG. 11 includes a curved or arcuate edge portion 126 on the rear edge 128 for removing cards or clearing jammed cards, and it includes the two bilateral tabs 124, also a feature of the shelf members 104 of the rack assembly 28 depicted in FIG. 7. The tabs 124 act as card guides and permit the plate-like shelf members 104 forming the compartments 106 to be positioned as closely as possible to the card transporting mechanism 30 to ensure that cards are delivered correctly into a compartment 106 even though they may be warped or bowed.

    Referring back to FIG. 5, an advantage of the plates 104 (and/or the half plates 96, 100) forming the compartments 106 is depicted. As shown in more detail in FIG. 5a, each plate 104 includes a beveled or angled underside rearmost surface 130 in the space between the shelves or plates 104, i.e., in each compartment 106. Referring to FIG. 5, the distance between the forward edge 134 of the plate 104 and the forward edge 132 of the bevel 130 is preferably less than the width of a typical card. The leading edge 136 of a card being driven into a compartment 106 hits the beveled surface 130 and falls down on the top of cards already in the compartment 106 so that it comes to rest properly in the compartment 106 or on the uppermost card of cards already delivered to the compartment. To facilitate a bevel 130 at a suitable angle 137, a preferred thickness for the plate-like shelf members 104 is approximately 3/32 of an inch, but this thickness and/or the bevel angle can be changed or varied to accommodate different sizes of cards, such as poker and bridge cards. Preferably, the bevel angle 137 is between approximately ten and 45 degrees, and more preferably is between approximately fifteen and twenty degrees. Whatever bevel angle and thickness is selected, it is preferred that cards should come to rest with their trailing edge at least even with and, preferably rearwardly of edge 132 of the plate-like shelf members 104.

    The front of the rack assembly 28 is closed by a removable cover 142, which may be formed of opaque, transparent or semi-transparent material such as suitable metal or plastic.

    Card Moving Mechanism
    Referring to FIGS. 4, 5 and 6, a preferred card transporting or moving mechanism 30 linking the card receiving well 60 and the compartments 106 of the rack assembly 28 includes a card pickup roller assembly 150. The card pick-up roller assembly 150 is located generally at the forward portion of the well 60. The pick-up roller assembly 150 includes friction rollers 151A, 151B supported by a bearing mounted axle 152 extending generally across the well 60 whereby the card contacting surface of the roller is in close proximity to the forward portion of the floor surface 66. The roller assembly 150 is driven by a pick up motor 154 operably coupled to the axle 152 by a suitable continuous connector 156 such as a belt or chain. The card contacting surface of the roller may be generally smooth, it may be textured or it may include one or more finger or tab-like extensions, as long as card gripping and moving is not impaired.

    With continued reference to FIGS. 4, 5 and 6, the preferred card moving mechanism 30 includes a pinch roller card accelerator or speed-up system 160 located adjacent to the front of the well 60 generally between the well 60 and the rack assembly 28 forwardly of the pick-up roller assembly 150. As shown in FIG. 7, it is the speed-up system 160 which nests close to the shelves 104 between the tabs 124 of the shelves. Referring back to FIGS. 4, 5 and 6, the speed-up system 160 comprises a pair of axle supported, closely adjacent speed-up rollers, one above the other, including a lower roller 162 and an upper roller 164. The upper roller 164 may be urged toward the lower roller 162 by a spring assembly 166 (FIG. 4) or the roller 162 and 164 may be fixed in slight contact or near to contact and formed of a generally firm yet resilient material which gives just enough to admit a card. Referring to FIG. 4, the lower roller 162 is a driven by a speed-up motor 166 operably linked to it by a suitable connector 168 such as a belt or a chain. The mounting for the speed-up rollers also supports a rearward card in sensor 172 and a forward card out sensor 176. FIG. 5 is a largely representational view depicting the relationship between the card receiving well 60 and the card transporting mechanism 30, and also shows a card "C" being picked up by the pickup roller assembly 150 and being moved into the pinch roller system 160 for acceleration into a compartment 104 of the rack assembly 28.

    In one embodiment, the pick-up roller assembly 150 is not continuously driven, but rather indexes and includes a one-way clutch mechanism. After initially picking up a card and advancing it into the speed-up system 160, the pick-up roller motor 154 stops when the leading edge of a card hits the card out sensor 176, but the roller assembly 150 free-wheels as a card is accelerated from under it by the speed-up system 160. The speed-up pinch system 160 is continuous in operation once a cycle starts. When the trailing edge of the card passes the card out sensor 176, the rack assembly 28 moves the next designated compartment into place for receiving a card. The pick up motor 154 then reactuates.

    Additional components and details of the transport mechanism 30 are depicted in FIG. 6, an exploded assembly view thereof. In FIG. 6 the inclined floor surface 66 of the well 60 is visible, as are the axle mounted pickup and pinch roller assemblies 150, 160, respectively, and their relative positions.

    Referring to FIGS. 4 and 5, the transport assembly 30 includes a pair of generally rigid stopping plates including an upper stop plate and a lower stop plate 180, 182, respectively. The plates 180, 182 are fixedly positioned between the rack assembly 28 and the speed-up system 160 immediately forward of and above and below the pinch rollers 162, 164. The stop plates 180, 182 stop the cards from rebounding or bouncing rearwardly, back toward the pinch rollers, after they are driven against and contact the cover at the front of the rack assembly 28.

    Processing/Control Unit
    FIG. 14 is a block diagram depicting an electrical control system which may be used in one embodiment of the present invention. The control system includes a controller 360, a bus 362, and a motor controller 364. Also represented in FIG. 14 are inputs 366, outputs 368, and a motor system 370. The controller 360 sends signals to both the motor controller 364 and the outputs 368 while monitoring the inputs 366. The motor controller 364 interprets signals received over the bus 362 from the controller 360. The motor system 370 is driven by the motor controller 364 in response to the commands from the controller 360. The controller 360 controls the state of the outputs 368 by sending appropriate signals over the bus 362.

    In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the motor system 370 comprises motors that are used for operating components of the card handling apparatus 21. Motors operate the pick-up roller, the pinch, speed-up rollers, the pusher and the elevator. The gate and stop may be operated by a motor, as well. In such an embodiment, the motor controller 364 would normally comprise one or two controllers and driver devices for each of the motor used. However, other configurations are possible.

    The outputs 368 include, for example, alarm, start, and reset indicators and inputs and may also include signals that can be used to drive a display device (e.g., a LED display--not shown). Such a display device can be used to implement a timer, a card counter, or a cycle counter. Generally, an appropriate display device can be configured and used to display any information worthy of display.

    The inputs 366 are information from the limit switches and sensors described above. The controller 360 receives the inputs 366 over the bus 362.

    Although the controller 360 can be any digital controller or microprocessor-based system, in a preferred embodiment, the controller 360 comprises a processing unit 380 and a peripheral device 382 as shown in FIG. 16. The processing unit 380 in the preferred embodiment may be an 8-bit single-chip microcomputer such as an 80C52 manufactured by the Intel Corporation of Santa Clara, Calif. The peripheral device 382 may be a field programmable micro controller peripheral device that includes programmable logic devices, EPROMs, and input-output ports. As shown in FIG. 15, peripheral device 382 interfaces the processing unit 380 to the bus 362.

    The series of instructions stored in the controller 360 is shown in FIGS. 15 and 16 as program logic 384. In a preferred embodiment, the program logic 384 is RAM or ROM hardware in the peripheral device 382. (Since the processing unit 380 may have some memory capacity, it is possible that some of the instructions are stored in the processing unit 380.) As one skilled in the art will recognize, various implementations of the program logic 384 are possible. The program logic 384 could be either hardware, software, or a combination of both. Hardware implementations might involve hardwired code or instructions stored in a ROM or RAM device. Software implementations would involve instructions stored on a magnetic, optical, or other media that can be accessed by the processing unit 380.

    Under certain conditions, it is possible that a significant amount of electrostatic charge may build up in the card handler 21. Significant electrostatic discharge could affect the operation of the handler 21. It may, therefore, be helpful to isolate some of the circuitry of the control system from the rest of the machine. In one embodiment of the present invention, a number of optically-coupled isolators are used to act as a barrier to electrostatic discharge.

    As shown in FIG. 16, a first group of circuitry 390 can be electrically isolated from a second group of circuitry 392 by using optically-coupled logic gates that have light-emitting diodes to optically (rather than electrically) transmit a digital signal, and photo detectors to receive the optically transmitted data. An illustration of electrical isolation through the use of optically-coupled logic gates is shown in FIG. 17, which shows a portion of FIG. 16 in detail. Four Hewlett-Packard HCPL-2630 optocouplers (labeled 394, 396, 398 and 400) are used to provide an 8-bit isolated data path to the output devices 368. Each bit of data is represented by both an LED 402 and a photo detectors 404. The LEDs emit light when forward biased, and the photo detectors detect the presence or absence of the light. Data is thus transmitted without an electrical connection.

    Second Card Moving Mechanism
    Referring to FIGS. 4, 8 and 8a, the apparatus 21 includes a second card moving mechanism 34 comprising a reciprocating card unloading pusher 190. The pusher 190 includes a substantially flexible pusher arm 192 in the form of a rack having a plurality of linearly arranged apertures 194 along its length. The arm 192 is operably engaged with the teeth of a pinion gear 196 driven by an unloading motor 198 controlled by the microprocessor. At its leading or card contacting end, the pusher arm 192 includes a blunt, enlarged card-contacting head end portion 200. The end portion 200 is greater in height than the spacing between the shelf members 104 forming the compartments 106 to make sure that all the cards contained in a compartment are contacted and pushed as it is operated, even bowed or warped cards, and includes a pair outstanding guide tabs 203 at each side of the head 200 for interacting with the second card receiver 36 for helping to insure that the cards are moved properly and without jamming from the compartments 106 to the second card receiver 36. The second card moving mechanism 34 is operated periodically (upon demand) to empty stacks of cards from compartments, i.e., compartments which have received a complement of cards or a selectable minimum number of cards.

    Second Card Receiver
    When actuated, the second card moving mechanism 34 empties a compartment 106 by pushing cards therein into a second card receiver 36, which may take the form of a shoe-like receiver, of the apparatus 21. The second card receiver 36 is shown in FIGS. 1, 4, 14 and 16, among others.

    Referring to FIGS. 12 and 13, the second card receiver 36 includes a shoe-like terminal end plate 204 and a card way, indicated generally at 206, extending generally between the rack assembly 28 and the terminal end plate 204. When a compartment 106 is aligned with the card way 206, as shown in FIG. 12, the card way 206 may be thought of as continuous with the aligned compartment. Referring to FIG. 4, an optional cover operating motor 208 is positioned generally under the card way 206 for raising and lowering a powered cover 142 if such a cover is used.

    Referring back to FIGS. 4, 12 and 13, the card way 206 has a double curved, generally S-shaped surface and comprises a pair of parallel card guiding rails 210, 212, each having one end adjacent to the rack assembly 28 and a second end adjacent to the terminal end 204. Each rail 210, 212 has a card receiving groove 213. A S-shaped card support 211 is positioned between the rails 210, 212 for supporting the central portion of a card or group of cards as it moves down the card way 206. A pair of card biasing springs 215 are provided adjacent to the rails 210, 212 to urge the cards upwardly against the top of the grooves 213 to assist in keeping the all the cards in the group being moved into the second receiver 36 in contact with the pusher 190. The curves of the card way 206 help to guide and position cards for delivery between cards already delivered and the card pushing block 214, which is generally similar to the block 68. The second curve portion 207 in particular helps position and align the cards for delivery between cards already delivered and the card pushing block 214.

    The second card receiver 36 is generally hollow, defining a cavity for receiving cards and for containing the mirror image rails 210, 212, the motor assembly 208 and a freely movable card pushing block 214. Referring to FIG. 12, the block 214 has an angled, front card contacting face 216, the angle of which is generally complementary to the angle of the terminal end plate 220. The block 214 has a wheel or roller 218 for contacting the sloping or angled floor 220 of the second card receiver 36 whereby the block moves freely back and forth. The free movement helps absorb or accommodate the force generated by the dealer's hand as he deals, i.e., the block 214 is free to bounce rearwardly. A suitable bounce limit means (such as a stop 221 mounted on the floor 220 or a resilient member, not shown) may be coupled near the block 214 to limit its rearward travel. Referring to FIG. 4, a suitable receiver empty sensor 222 may be carried by the terminal plate 220 at a suitable location, and a card jammed sensor 224 may be provided along the card way 206 adjacent to the guide rails 210, 212. The receiver empty sensor 222 is for sensing the presence or absence of cards. The sensor 222 senses the location of block 214 indicating the number of cards in the buffer, and may be operably linked to the microprocessor or directly to the pusher motor 198 for triggering the microprocessor to actuate the pusher 190 of the second transport assembly 34 to unload one or more groups of cards from the compartments 106.

    As depicted in FIG. 13, the terminal plate 204 may include a sloped surface 204'. The sloped surface 204' has a raised portion closest to the terminal plate 204, and that portion fits generally under a notch 205' in the terminal plate 204 for receiving a dealer's finger to facilitate dealing and to help preserve the flatness of the cards. The shoe 204', the terminal plate 204 and a removable card way cover 209 may be formed as a unit, or as separatable individual pieces for facilitating access to the inside of the second receiver 36.

    FIG. 12 is a largely representational view depicting the apparatus 21 and the relationship of its components including the card receiver 26 for receiving a group of new or played cards for being shuffled for play, including the well 60 and block 68, the rack assembly 28 and its single stack of card-receiving compartments 106, the card moving or transporting mechanism 30 between and linking the card receiver 26 and the rack assembly 28, the second card mover 190 for emptying the compartments 106 and the second receiver 36 for receiving randomized or shuffled cards.

    Operation/Use
    Appendix B outlines one embodiment of the operational steps or flow of the method and apparatus of the present invention. The start input is actuated and the apparatus 21 homes (see Appendix B). In use, played or new cards to be shuffled or reshuffled are loaded into the well 60 by moving the block 68 generally rearwardly or removing it. Cards are placed into the well 60 generally sideways, with the plane of the cards generally vertical, on one of the long side edges of the cards (see FIGS. 5 and 12). The block 68 is released or replaced to urge the cards into an angular position generally corresponding to the angle of the angled card contacting face of the block, and into contact with the pick-up roller assembly 150. As the cards are picked up, i.e., after the separation of a card from the remainder of the group of cards in the well 60 is started, a card is accelerated by the speed-up system 160 and spit or moved through a horizontal opening between the plates 180, 182 and into a selected compartment 106. Substantially simultaneously, movement of subsequent cards is underway, with the rack assembly 28 position relative to the cards being delivered by the transport mechanism 30 being selected and timed by the microprocessor whereby selected cards are delivered randomly to selected compartments until the cards in the well 60 are exhausted. In the unlikely event of a card jam during operation, for example, if one of the sensors is blocked or if the pusher hits or lodges against the rack assembly 28, the apparatus 21 may flow automatically or upon demand to a recovery routine which might include reversal of one or more motors such as the pick-up or speed-up motors, and/or repositioning of the rack assembly 28 a small distance up or down.

    Upon demand from the receiver sensor 223, the microprocessor randomly selects the compartment 106 to be unloaded, and energizes the motor which causes the pusher 190 to unload the cards in one compartment 106 into the second card receiver 36. The pusher is triggered by the sensor 223 associated with the second receiver 36. It should be appreciated that each cycle or operational sequence of the machine 21 transfers all of the cards placed in the well 60 each time, even if there are still cards in some compartments 106. In one embodiment, the apparatus 21 is programmed to substantially constantly maintain a "buffer" (see FIG. 12 wherein the buffer is depicted at "B") of a selected number of cards, for example 20 cards, in the second receiver. A buffer of more or less cards may be selected.

    In operation, when sensor 74 detects cards present, the entire stack of unshuffled cards in the card receiver 26 is delivered one by one to the card receiving compartments 106. A random number generator is utilized to select the compartment which will receive each individual card. The microprocessor is programmed to skip compartments that hold the minimum number of cards allowed by the program. At any time during the distribution sequence, the microprocessor can be instructed to activate the unloading sequence. All compartments 106 are randomly selected.

    It is to be understood that because cards are being fed into and removed from the apparatus 21 on a fairly continuous basis, that the number of cards delivered into each compartment 106 will vary.

    Preferably, the microprocessor is programmed to randomly select the compartment 106 to be unloaded when more cards are needed. Most preferably, the microprocessor is programmed to skip compartments 106 having seven or fewer cards to maintain reasonable shuffling speed.

    It has been demonstrated that the apparatus of the present invention provides a recurrance rate of at least 4.3%, a significant improvement over known devices.

    In one exemplary embodiment, the continuous card shuffling apparatus 21 of the present invention may have the following specifications or attributes which may be taken into account when creating an operational program.

    Machine Parameters--4 Deck Model:

    1. Number of compartments 106: variable between 13-19;

    2. Maximum number of cards/compartment: variable between 10-14;

    3. Initial number of cards in second card receiver: 20-24;

    4. Theoretical capacity of the compartments: 147-266 cards (derived from the number of compartments x the preferred maximum number of cards/compartment;

    5. Number of cards in the second card receiver 36 to trigger unloading of a compartment: variable between 6-10;

    6. Delivery of cards from a compartment 106 is not tied to a predetermined number of cards in a compartment (e.g., a compartment does not have to contain 14 cards to be unloaded). The minimum number of cards to be unloaded may range from between 4 to 7 cards and it is preferred that no compartment 106 be completely full (i.e., unable to receive additional cards) at any time.

    In use, it is preferred that the apparatus 21 incorporates features, likely associated with the microprocessor, for monitoring and recording the number of cards in each group of cards being moved into the second card receiver 36, the number of groups of cards moved, and the total number of cards moved.

    In one embodiment, taking into account the above set forth apparatus attributes, the apparatus 21 may follow the following sequence of operations:

    Filling the machine with cards:

    1. The dealer loads the well 60 with pre-shuffled cards;

    2. Upon actuation, the apparatus 21 randomly loads the compartments 106 with cards from the well, one card at a time, picking cards from the top of the cards in the well;

    3. When one of the compartments 106 receives a predetermined number of cards, unload that compartment 106 into the second card receiver 36;

    4. Continue with #2. No compartment loading during second receiver loading.;

    5. When a second compartment 106 receives a predetermined number of cards, unload that compartment 106 into the second card receiver 36, behind cards already delivered to the second receiver 36;

    6. The dealer continues to load cards in the well 60 which are randomly placed into the compartments 106; and

    7. Repeat this process until the initial number of cards in receiver 36 has been delivered.

    Continuous operation

    1. The dealer begins dealing;

    2. When the number of cards in the second card receiver 36 goes down to a predetermined number sensed by sensor 223, unload one group of cards from one of the compartments 106 (randomly selected);

    3. As cards are collected from the table, the dealer loads cards into the receiver 60. These cards are then randomly loaded into compartments 106. In case a compartment has received the maximum number of cards allowed by the program, if selected to receive another card, the program will skip that compartment and randomly select another compartment; and

    4. Repeat #2 and #3 as play continues. It is preferable that the ratio of cards out or in play to the total number of cards available should be low, for example approximately 24:208.
    ====================================== :roll: ===============================
  • I didn't read any of that.
  • Actually, I think I'll print that out. On a slow day I'll sit down at the table with it, just to give a pit boss a little agita. Of course, I won't expect to play that day!

    John
  • I've seen a couple of us wonder how these things work, now we know, I suppose :) Neil will need to add more bandwidth if someone quotes that post though. I wonder what the source of that info is or if we recited it from memory. :lol:
  • Mike said:
    I've seen a couple of us wonder how these things work, now we know, I suppose :) Neil will need to add more bandwidth if someone quotes that post though. I wonder what the source of that info is or if we recited it from memory. :lol:


    The information is in the US public domain.
    Based on the Freedom of Information Act, 1997 that establishes three statutory rights for persons in the our beloved US.
    1. To access information held by public bodies.
    2. To have official information relating to him/herself amended where it is incomplete, incorrect or misleading.
    3. To obtain reasons for decisions affecting oneself.

    It is perfectly legal to know and read all the details about CSMs used in places where the public has access and participate. Please pay attention to #3 from Freedom of Information Act that states: To obtain reasons for decisions affecting oneself

    So, we the people that participate in games that use CSMs have the right to know all the engineering details of how those machines work. We have the right to know how the cards are shuffled. We have the right to know all the details. No question about that!

    We have the Freedom of Information Act 1997 law to protect us. We even have the right to ask the pit boss to tell us how the machine work inside and what controls the shuffling process.

    But, now, we don't have to ask those questions any pit boss because the info about CSM is in the open with all the details, all the way to engineering drawings.
  • Freedom of information act indeed! What a crock. I've read enough patent applications to know where this came from.

    http://www.uspto.gov/

    BFD
  • I know that there's a really little dude in that box shuffling the cards and handing out stiffs when I hit 16.
  • **********To obtain reasons for decisions affecting oneself********



    Now I wanna know how that damn chicken can beat me at Tic Tac Toe..
  • Sorry Mike, but that chicken is simply samrter then you.

    You want proof besides the tic tac toe, how many times has that chicken walked away from a blackjack table a loser :)
  • None of the casinos I play at have these machines why? BECAUSE everyone hates them, superstitious and other wise think they they are rigged for the house. I've heard all kinds of things that made the casinos around my area take out the continous shuffling machines.
  • Jeff Bunting said:
    None of the casinos I play at have these machines why? BECAUSE everyone hates them, superstitious and other wise think they they are rigged for the house. I've heard all kinds of things that made the casinos around my area take out the continous shuffling machines.

    Around here, (San Diego) This game is so popular, that, I'd bet that most people would play even if the casino dealt from a 49 card deck. I'd sooner play a CSM than "Super Fun Blackjack" or some of the other ridiculous (my opinion) variations of the game. The only good thing about the Superfun Game is that it allows a late surrender.
  • Thanks for the great info Alex3DO. I'm a first time poster and have read through all of your posts and find everything very interesting, thanks for all your help!

    Mike, I know what you mean about the "super fun" games. The most fun I had at one of those was because the Dealer at the super fun game, her name was actually "fun", which I found quite amusing.

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